Introduction of marine equipment
The main facilities of the ship include power facilities, control facilities, loading and unloading facilities and safety facilities. Through the application of these facilities, production operations such as navigation, berthing and unberthing, loading and unloading of ships are achieved, and the safety of ships and personnel is ensured.1. Ship power facilities include three main parts: main power plant, auxiliary power plant, other auxiliary machinery and equipment.
The main power unit, also known as the propulsion unit, is a variety of mechanical equipment, including the main engine and its ancillary equipment, that provides propulsion power for the ship and ensures that the ship runs at a certain speed. It is the heart of the whole ship. The main power device includes the main engine, transmission equipment, shafting, thrusters, etc. The main power unit of the ship, also known as the "main engine", is the heart of the ship and the most important part of the ship's power facilities. A propeller, usually a propeller.
Auxiliary power units are devices used to provide various energy other than propulsion devices for the navigation, operation and life of ships, including devices that provide electricity, lighting and other power for the whole ship, such as generator sets, switchboards, auxiliary boilers, Refrigeration and air conditioning installations, compressed air installations, marine pumps and piping systems, water making systems, automation systems, etc.
Ship deck machinery, including steering gear, windlass, crane and other auxiliary machinery. These machines use steam as power on steam-engine ships, and firstly use electric power on diesel-engine ships, and now most of them have been switched to hydraulic drive.
2. Ship handling facilities include anchor facilities, rudder facilities and mooring facilities. During sailing, these facilities play an important role when manoeuvring or mooring in the port.
The anchor facilities are mainly composed of anchors, anchor chains, chain drums, chain makers, windlasses, chain pipes, chain lockers and chain discarders. The Hall anchor in the rodless anchor is currently the most widely used anchor. The anchor chain is a chain connecting the anchor and the hull, generally composed of chain links, connecting links, connecting shackles and swivels. The anchor chain is divided into two types: with gear and without gear. Anchor windlass are mechanical devices for dropping anchors, pulling anchors and twisting cables. When the sprocket shaft of the windlass is horizontal, it is called horizontal windlass, which is the windlass used by general merchant ships. According to different power, it is divided into electric windlass, hydraulic windlasses and steam windlasses. At present, electric windlasses are generally used on diesel ships. Other attached facilities include chain makers, hawse drums, hawse pipes, hawse lockers and chain discarders.
The rudder facility is the main facility for manipulating the ship to ensure that the ship can maintain and change its course during the course of the ship. It is mainly composed of rudder gear, steering gear, steering gear and steering gear. At present, electric steering gear and hydraulic steering gear are generally used. At present, there are two main types of steering gears: tiller type steering gear and rudder fan type steering gear. The transmission mode of the steering gear is divided into electric transmission and hydraulic transmission.
The mooring facilities are composed of mooring lines, fairlead devices, cable pulling devices, winch machines, mooring reels and attachments. Mooring cables are also called ship cables. A good cable should have the characteristics of high strength, moderate elasticity, corrosion resistance, friction resistance, low density, soft texture, and easy use. There are two commonly used steel cables and chemical fiber cables. The fairlead device has fairlead holes, fairlead clamps, guide rollers, guide columns, etc. Fairleads are used to secure the free ends of mooring lines. Generally divided into vertical, oblique, cross and mooring claw. Winding machinery, also known as winch, is generally divided into vertical and horizontal types, which are used to winch cables. The mooring reel, also known as the cable car, is used to reel and store the cable. Other mooring attachments include skimmers, fenders, lanyards or chains and rat guards.